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Pathological mechanisms and future therapeutic directions of thrombin in intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review

Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Tao, Chenxi;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Li, Yuanyuan;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
An, Na;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Liu, Haoqi;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Liu, Zhenhong;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Sun, Yikun;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Qian, Ying;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Li, Na;
Affiliation
Guang’an Men Hospital ,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences ,Beijing ,China
Xing, Yanwei;
Affiliation
Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education ,Dongzhimen Hospital ,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine ,Beijing ,China
Gao, Yonghong

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a common subtype of hemorrhagic stroke, often causes severe disability or death. ICH induces adverse events that might lead to secondary brain injury (SBI), and there is currently a lack of specific effective treatment strategies. To provide a new direction for SBI treatment post-ICH, the systematic review discussed how thrombin impacts secondary injury after ICH through several potentially deleterious or protective mechanisms. We included 39 studies and evaluated them using SYRCLE’s ROB tool. Subsequently, we explored the potential molecular mechanisms of thrombin-mediated effects on SBI post-ICH in terms of inflammation, iron deposition, autophagy, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, we described the effects of thrombin in endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and neurons, as well as the harmful and beneficial effects of high and low thrombin concentrations on ICH. Finally, we concluded the current research status of thrombin therapy for ICH, which will provide a basis for the future clinical application of thrombin in the treatment of ICH.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2024 Tao, Li, An, Liu, Liu, Sun, Qian, Li, Xing and Gao.

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