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CDK4/6 inhibitors in drug-induced liver injury: a pharmacovigilance study of the FAERS database and analysis of the drug–gene interaction network

Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center ,Shanghai ,China
She, Youjun;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center ,Shanghai ,China
Guo, Zihan;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center ,Shanghai ,China
Zhai, Qing;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center ,Shanghai ,China
Liu, Jiyong;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center ,Shanghai ,China
Du, Qiong;
Affiliation
Department of Oncology ,Shanghai Medical College ,Fudan University ,Shanghai ,China
Zhang, Zhongwei

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by the CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6is abemaciclib, ribociclib, and palbociclib by comprehensively analyzing the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Moreover, potential toxicological mechanisms of CDK4/6is-related liver injury were explored via drug–gene network analysis. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we collected reports of DILI associated with CDK4/6i use from the FAERS dated January 2014 to March 2023. We conducted disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Pathway enrichment analysis and drug-gene network analyses were subsequently performed to determine the potential mechanisms underlying CDK4/6i-induced liver injury. Results: We found positive signals for DILI with ribociclib (ROR = 2.60) and abemaciclib (ROR = 2.37). DILIs associated with liver-related investigations, signs, and symptoms were confirmed in all three reports of CDK4/6is. Moreover, ascites was identified as an unlisted hepatic adverse effect of palbociclib. We isolated 189 interactive target genes linking CDK4/6 inhibitors to hepatic injury. Several key genes, such as STAT3, HSP90AA1, and EP300, were revealed via protein-protein analysis, emphasizing their central roles within the network. KEGG pathway enrichment of these genes highlighted multiple pathways. Conclusion: Our study revealed variations in hepatobiliary toxicity among the different CDK4/6 inhibitors, with ribociclib showing the highest risk of liver injury, followed by abemaciclib, while palbociclib appeared relatively safe. Our findings emphasize the need for cautious use of CDK4/6 inhibitors, and regular liver function monitoring is recommended for long-term CDK4/6 inhibitor use.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2024 She, Guo, Zhai, Liu, Du and Zhang.

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