Unlocking the role of non-coding RNAs in prostate cancer progression: exploring the interplay with the Wnt signaling pathway
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in males, exhibiting a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that pose challenges in its diagnosis and treatment. The Wnt signaling pathway, a conserved and complex pathway, is crucial for embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes. Apart from the classical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, there exist multiple non-classical Wnt signaling pathways, including the Wnt/PCP and Wnt/Ca 2+ pathways. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the occurrence and development of PCa and the response to PCa treatment. ncRNAs are known to execute diverse regulatory roles in cellular processes, despite their inability to encode proteins. Among them, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs play key roles in the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway in PCa. Aberrant expression of these ncRNAs and dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway are one of the causes of cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis in PCa. Moreover, these ncRNAs affect the characteristics of PCa cells and hold promise as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Herein, we summarize the role of ncRNAs in the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway during the development of PCa. Additionally, we present an overview of the current progress in research on the correlation between these molecules and clinical features of the disease to provide novel insights and strategies for the treatment of PCa.