Enhancing Osteoporosis Treatment through Targeted Nanoparticle Delivery of Risedronate: In Vivo Evaluation and Bioavailability Enhancement
Risedronate-loaded mPEG-coated hydroxyapatite, thiolated chitosan-based (coated) and non-coated nanoparticles were tested for their potential effects in the treatment of osteoporosis. The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated for their bone-targeting potential by inducing osteoporosis in female Wistar rats via oral administration of Dexona (dexamethasone sodium phosphate). In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed on osteoporotic rat models treated with different formulations. The osteoporotic model treated with the prepared nanoparticles indicated a significant effect on bone. The relative bioavailability was enhanced for RIS-HA-TCS-mPEG nanoparticles given orally compared to RIS-HA-TCS, marketed, and API suspension. Biochemical investigations also showed a significant change in biomarker levels, ultimately leading to bone formation/resorption. Micro-CT analysis of bone samples also demonstrated that the RIS-HA-TCS-mPEG-treated group showed the best results compared to other treatment groups. Moreover, the histology of bone treated with RIS-HA-TCS-mPEG showed a marked restoration of the architecture of trabecular bone along with a well-connected bone matrix and narrow inter-trabecular spaces compared to the toxic group. A stability analysis was also carried out according to ICH guidelines (Q1AR2), and it was found that RIS-HA-TCS-mPEG was more stable than RIS-HA-TCS at 25 °C. Thus, the results of present study indicated that mPEG-RIS-HA-TCS has excellent potential for sustained delivery of RIS for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, and for minimizing the adverse effects of RIS typically induced via oral administration.