Fc-Engineered Therapeutic Antibodies: Recent Advances and Future Directions
Monoclonal therapeutic antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Fc engineering aims to enhance the effector functions or half-life of therapeutic antibodies by modifying their Fc regions. Recent advances in the Fc engineering of modern therapeutic antibodies can be considered the next generation of antibody therapy. Various strategies are employed, including altering glycosylation patterns via glycoengineering and introducing mutations to the Fc region, thereby enhancing Fc receptor or complement interactions. Further, Fc engineering strategies enable the generation of bispecific IgG-based heterodimeric antibodies. As Fc engineering techniques continue to evolve, an expanding portfolio of Fc-engineered antibodies is advancing through clinical development, with several already approved for medical use. Despite the plethora of Fc-based mutations that have been analyzed in in vitro and in vivo models, we focus here in this review on the relevant Fc engineering strategies of approved therapeutic antibodies to finetune effector functions, to modify half-life and to stabilize asymmetric bispecific IgGs.