A Systematic Evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Anti-S-RBD-Ig Response in a Population of Health Care Workers
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the novel class of mRNA vaccines has been granted first-time approval for active immunization against SARS-CoV-2 alongside the already established viral vector-based vaccines. In this prospective single-center study, we set out to determine the vaccine-induced humoral immune response in a population of 1512 health care employees after the second and third vaccination, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid antigen antibody concentrations were assessed using commercially available immunoassays. We could show that, in particular, young study subjects aged below 30 years, as well as those with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, developed significantly higher antibody concentrations. Our data further suggest that being in physically close contact with formerly SARS-CoV-2-positive people positively affects the post-vaccination response. Surprisingly, study subjects with a BMI > 30 produced the highest anti-S-RBD Ig antibody levels if they had recently received their third vaccination. Also, heterologous dual vaccine regimens consisting of a BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 n-CoV-19, a homologous triple combination of BNT162b2, and an application of mRNA-1273 as the third vaccine, were most efficient at eliciting a humoral immune response. Our study substantiates existing evidence, but beyond that, scrutinizes the impact of vaccine agents and their respective combinations, as well as different time intervals on humoral immunogenicity.