Nanodiamond Decorated PEO Oxide Coatings on NiTi Alloy
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain a leading cause of death in the European population, primarily attributed to atherosclerosis and subsequent complications. Although statin drugs effectively prevent atherosclerosis, they fail to reduce plaque size and vascular stenosis. Bare metal stents (BMS) have shown promise in acute coronary disease treatment but are associated with restenosis in the stent. Drug-eluting stents (DES) have improved restenosis rates but present long-term complications. To overcome these limitations, nanomaterial-based modifications of the stent surfaces have been explored. This study focuses on the incorporation of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) into a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating on nitinol stents to enhance their performance. The functionalized ND showed a high surface-to-volume ratio and was incorporated into the oxide layer to mimic high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We provide substantial characterization of DND, including stability in two media (acetone and water), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The characterization of the modified ND revealed successful functionalization and adequate suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX demonstrated successful incorporation of DND into the ceramic layer, but the formation of a porous surface is possible only in the high-voltage PEO. The biological assessment demonstrated the biocompatibility of the decorated nitinol surface with enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. This study presents a novel approach to improving the performance of nitinol stents using ND-based surface modifications, providing a promising avenue for cardiovascular disease.