Animals Experimentally Infected with SARS-CoV-2 Generate Functional Autoantibodies against G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
(1) Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been linked to diverse clinical manifestations in humans, including cardiovascular complications. Functional autoantibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors have emerged as potential contributors to these effects. This study sought to investigate the production and activity of functional autoantibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors after SARS-CoV-2 infection of selected animal species. (2) Methods: The presence of functional autoantibodies such as 2-adrenoceptor, angiotensin II AT1 receptor, muscarinic M2 receptor, and angiotensin 1–7 MAS receptor was assessed in cattle and ferrets experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2. Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the positive or negative chronotropic responses induced by these autoantibodies. Further experiments identified the extracellular domains to which the functional autoantibodies bind, and receptor antagonists were employed to block the induced responses. (3) Results: Only two out of six cattle that were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 displayed viral replication and tested positive for functional autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors. These functional autoantibodies specifically recognized β2-adrenoceptor, angiotensin II AT1 receptor, muscarinic M2 receptor, and angiotensin 1–7 MAS receptor and induced distinct positive and negative chronotropic effects in the bioassay. Infected ferrets generated functional autoantibodies against β2-adrenoceptor and muscarinic M2 receptor and presented bioactivity similar to that in cattle. (4) Conclusions: This study uncovers functional autoantibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors in cattle and ferrets post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, with implications for cardiovascular function.