Metabolite Profile Characterization of Cyanobacterial Strains with Bioactivity on Lipid Metabolism Using In Vivo and In Vitro Approaches
Cyanobacteria have demonstrated their therapeutic potential for many human diseases. In this work, cyanobacterial extracts were screened for lipid reducing activity in zebrafish larvae and in fatty-acid-overloaded human hepatocytes, as well as for glucose uptake in human hepatocytes and ucp1 mRNA induction in murine brown adipocytes. A total of 39 cyanobacteria strains were grown and their biomass fractionated, resulting in 117 chemical fractions. Reduction of neutral lipids in zebrafish larvae was observed for 12 fractions and in the human hepatocyte steatosis cell model for five fractions. The induction of ucp1 expression in murine brown adipocytes was observed in six fractions, resulting in a total of 23 bioactive non-toxic fractions. All extracts were analyzed by untargeted UPLC-Q-TOF-MS mass spectrometry followed by multivariate statistical analysis to prioritize bioactive strains. The metabolite profiling led to the identification of two markers with lipid reducing activity in zebrafish larvae. Putative compound identification using mass spectrometry databases identified them as phosphatidic acid and aromatic polyketides derivatives—two compound classes, which were previously associated with effects on metabolic disorders. In summary, we have identified cyanobacterial strains with promising lipid reducing activity, whose bioactive compounds needs to be identified in the future.