Ovarian Torsion in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Potential Threat?
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) constitutes the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age worldwide. Given the increased risk of ovarian torsion in the presence of large ovarian cysts, polycystic ovarian syndrome could be regarded as one of the most significant risk factors for ovarian and/or adnexal torsion in cases of significantly enlarged ovaries. The aim of the present review is to investigate, for the first time, the association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and ovarian torsion. We performed a review of the literature using the MEDLINE and LIVIVO databases in order to find relevant studies. By using the search terms “polycystic ovarian syndrome” and “ovarian torsion”, we were able to identify 14 studies published between 1995 and 2019. The present work constitutes the most up-to-date, comprehensive literature review focusing on the risk of ovarian/adnexal torsion in patients with polycystic ovaries. Ovarian/adnexal torsion seems to be a feared complication in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Acute lower abdominal pain in patients with known polycystic ovaries represents the most common symptom, while diagnostic assessment almost always incorporates transvaginal ultrasound and computer tomography or magnetic resonance tomography scans. In case of suspected torsion, emergency laparoscopy with ovarian or adnexal detorsion seems to be the standard therapeutic approach with a view to restitute the interrupted blood supply. In cases of repeated ovarian/adnexal torsions, ovariopexy or ovariectomy/adnexectomy had to be discussed with the patient in the context of risk recurrence minimization.