Dyslexia Due to Visual Impairments
Reading involves many different abilities that are necessary or sufficient conditions for fluent and flawless reading. The absence of one necessary or of all sufficient conditions is a cause of dyslexia. The present study investigates whether too short fixation times and an impaired ability to recognize a string of letters simultaneously are causes of dyslexia. The frequency and types of reading mistakes were investigated in a tachistoscopic pseudoword experiment with 100 children with dyslexia to test the impact of too short fixation times and the attempts of children with dyslexia to recognize more letters simultaneously than they can when reading pseudowords. The experiment demonstrates that all types of reading mistakes disappear when the fixation time increases and/or the number of letters that the children try to recognize simultaneously is reduced. The results cannot be interpreted as being due to altered visual crowding, impaired attention, or impaired phonological awareness, but can be regarded as an effect of impaired temporal summation and a dysfunction in the ventral stream of the visual system.