Antimicrobial Susceptibility from a One Health Perspective Regarding Porcine Escherichia coli from Bavaria, Germany
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most crucial One Health topics worldwide. Consequently, various national and international surveillance programs collect data and report trends regularly. Ceftiofur, colistin and enrofloxacin belong to the most important and critical class of anti-infective medications in both human and veterinary medicine. In the present study, antimicrobial resistance was analyzed using the epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) value on 6569 Escherichia coli isolated from pigs in Bavaria, Germany, during five years, from 2016 to 2020. The statistically relevant results regarding antimicrobial resistance revealed a decrease for colistin, an increase for enrofloxacin, and a constant level for ceftiofur. In Germany, the usage of all three antimicrobial substances in livestock has fallen by 43.6% for polypeptides, 59.0% for fluoroquinolones and 57.8% for the 3rd + 4th generation cephalosporines during this time. Despite the decline in antimicrobial usage, a reduction regarding antimicrobial resistance was solely observed for colistin. This finding illustrates that in addition to the restriction of pharmaceutical consumption, further measures should be considered. Improved biosecurity concepts, a reduction in crowding, and controlled animal movements on farms may play a key role in finally containing the resistance mechanisms of bacteria in farm animals.