Replacement of Vitamin E by an Extract from an Olive Oil by-Product, Rich in Hydroxytyrosol, in Broiler Diets: Effects on Liver Traits, Oxidation, Lipid Profile, and Transcriptome
The study examines the effect of replacing vitamin E (VE) with a liquid obtained from alpeorujo, an olive oil by-product rich in hydroxytyrosol (HT), as an antioxidant in broiler chicken feeds on the gene expression, lipid profile, and oxidation in the liver. There were five diets that differed only in the substitution of supplemental VE (0 to 40 mg/kg with differences of 10 mg/kg) by HT (30 to 0 mg/kg with differences of 7.5 mg/kg). A linear decrease ( p < 0.05) in α-tocopherol concentration in the liver was observed with the replacement of VE by HT. There were no significant changes in triglyceride, cholesterol, or TBARS concentrations. The hepatic transcriptome showed 378 differentially expressed genes between broilers fed HT15 (20 mg/kg VE and 15 mg/kg HT) and HT0 (40 mg/kg VE) diets ( p < 0.05 and fold change less or higher than 1.3). Significant changes in cell cycle, cell nucleus activity, neuroactivity, and necroptosis pathways and functions were observed. It is concluded that the olive oil by-product, rich in HT, could be used to spare VE as an antioxidant in broiler diets without affecting liver lipid and TBARS concentrations. The differential gene expression analysis showed a potential role of olive polyphenols in enhancing the chicken immune response.