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Neuroprotective potential of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn against monosodium glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in rats

Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology ,SRM College of Pharmacy ,SRM Institute of Science and Technology ,Chengalpattu ,Tamil Nadu ,India
Subramanian, Arunkumar;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology ,SRM College of Pharmacy ,SRM Institute of Science and Technology ,Chengalpattu ,Tamil Nadu ,India
Tamilanban, T.;
Affiliation
School of Pharmacy ,Monash University Malaysia ,Subang Jaya ,Selangor ,Malaysia
Sekar, Mahendran;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmaceutics ,College of Pharmacy ,King Khalid University ,Abha ,Saudi Arabia
Begum, M. Yasmin;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacognosy ,College of Pharmacy ,King Khalid University (KKU) ,Abha ,Saudi Arabia
Atiya, Akhtar;
Affiliation
Department of Foundation ,RCSI & UCD Malaysia Campus ,Georgetown ,Pulau Pinang ,Malaysia
Ramachawolran, Gobinath;
Affiliation
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences ,INTI International University ,Nilai ,Malaysia
Wong, Ling Shing;
Affiliation
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences ,Monash University Malaysia ,Subang Jaya ,Selangor ,Malaysia
Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan;
Affiliation
School of Pharmacy ,Monash University Malaysia ,Subang Jaya ,Selangor ,Malaysia
Gan, Siew Hua;
Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences ,Royal College of Medicine Perak ,Universiti Kuala Lumpur ,Ipoh ,Perak ,Malaysia
Mat Rani, Nur Najihah Izzati;
Affiliation
School of Medical and Life Sciences ,Sunway University ,Subang Jaya ,Malaysia
Wu, Yuan Seng;
Affiliation
Department of Biochemistry ,Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience, and Nursing, MAHSA University ,Selangor ,Malaysia
Chinni, Suresh V.;
Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmacy ,AIMST University ,Bedong ,Kedah ,Malaysia
Fuloria, Shivkanya;
Affiliation
Faculty of Pharmacy ,AIMST University ,Bedong ,Kedah ,Malaysia
Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar

Background: Excitotoxicity is a condition in which neurons are damaged/injured by the over-activation of glutamate receptors. Excitotoxins play a crucial part in the progression of several neurological diseases. Marsilea quadrifolia Linn ( M. quadrifolia ) is a very popular aquatic medicinal plant that has been utilised for a variety of therapeutic benefits since ancient times. Its chemical composition is diverse and includes phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates and several others that possess antioxidant properties. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of M. quadrifolia against monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Methods: A high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of chloroform extract of M. quadrifolia (CEMQ) was conducted to identify the major constituents. Further, the in silico docking analysis was carried out on selected ligands. To confirm CEMQ’s neuroprotective effects, the locomotor activity, non-spatial memory, and learning were assessed. Results and discussion: The present study confirmed that CMEQ contains quercetin and its derivatives in large. The in-silico findings indicated that quercetin has a better binding affinity (−7.9 kcal/mol) towards the protein target 5EWJ. Animals treated with MSG had 1) a greater reduction in the locomotor score and impairment in memory and learning 2) a greater increase in the blood levels of calcium and sodium and 3) neuronal disorganization, along with cerebral edema and neuronal degeneration in the brain tissues as compared to normal control animals. The changes were however, significantly improved in animals which received standard drug memantine (20 mg/kg) and CEMQ (200 and 400 mg/kg) as compared to the negative control. It is plausible that the changes seen with CEMQ may be attributed to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonistic properties. Conclusion: Overall, this study indicated that M. quadrifolia ameliorated MSG-induced neurotoxicity. Future investigations are required to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of M. quadrifolia and its active constituents, which will provide exciting insights in the therapeutic management of neurological disorders.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2023 Subramanian, Tamilanban, Sekar, Begum, Atiya, Ramachawolran, Wong, Subramaniyan, Gan, Mat Rani, Wu, Chinni, Fuloria and Fuloria.

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