Comprehensive analysis of Cuproplasia and immune microenvironment in lung adenocarcinoma
Background: Trace elements such as copper are essential for human health. Recently the journal Nat Rev Cancer has put forward the concept of Cuproplasia, a way of promoting tumor growth through reliance on copper. We attempted to conduct a comprehensive analysis of Cuproplasia-related genes in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) to explore the mechanism of action of Cuproplasia-related genes in LUAD. Method: Transcriptome data and clinical information of LUAD were obtained from TCGA-LUAD and GSE31210, and prognostic models of Cuproplasia-related genes were constructed and verified by regression analysis of GSVA, WGCNA, univariate COX and lasso. The signal pathways affected by Cuproplasia-related genes were analyzed by GO, KEGG and hallmarK pathway enrichment methods. Five immunocell infiltration algorithms and IMVIGOR210 data were used to analyze immune cell content and immunotherapy outcomes in the high-low risk group. Results: In the results of WGCNA, BROWN and TURQUOISE were identified as modules closely related to Cuproplasia score. In the end, lasso regression analysis established a Cuproplasia-related signature (CRS) based on 24 genes, and the prognosis of high-risk populations was worse in TCGA-LUAD and GSE31210 datasets. The enrichment analysis showed that copper proliferation was mainly through chromosome, cell cycle, dna replication, g2m checkpoint and other pathways. Immunoinfiltration analysis showed that there were differences in the content of macrophages among the four algorithms. And IMVIGOR210 found that the lower the score, the more effective the immunotherapy was. Conclusion: The Cuproplasia related gene can be used to predict the prognosis and immunotherapy outcome of LUAD patients, and may exert its effect by affecting chromosome-related pathways and macrophages.