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Novel biomarkers used for early diagnosis and tyrosine kinase inhibitors as targeted therapies in colorectal cancer

Affiliation
Department of Anus and Colorectal Surgery ,Shaoxing People’s Hospital ,Shaoxing ,China
Jiang, Huafeng;
Affiliation
Department of Anus and Colorectal Surgery ,Shaoxing People’s Hospital ,Shaoxing ,China
Zhou, Senjun;
Affiliation
Department of Anus and Colorectal Surgery ,Shaoxing People’s Hospital ,Shaoxing ,China
Li, Gang

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common and second most lethal type of cancer worldwide, presenting major health risks as well as economic costs to both people and society. CRC survival chances are significantly higher if the cancer is diagnosed and treated early. With the development of molecular biology, numerous initiatives have been undertaken to identify novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of CRC. Pathological disorders can be diagnosed at a lower cost with the help of biomarkers, which can be detected in stool, blood, and tissue samples. Several lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota could be used as a biomarker for CRC screening and treatment. CRC treatment choices include surgical resection, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy, and combination therapies. Targeted therapies are a relatively new and promising modality of treatment that has been shown to increase patients’ overall survival (OS) rates and can inhibit cancer cell development. Several small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are being investigated as potential treatments due to our increasing awareness of CRC’s molecular causes and oncogenic signaling. These compounds may inhibit critical enzymes in controlling signaling pathways, which are crucial for CRC cells’ development, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. On the other hand, only one of the approximately 42 TKIs that demonstrated anti-tumor effects in pre-clinical studies has been licensed for clinical usage in CRC. A significant knowledge gap exists when bringing these tailored medicines into the clinic. As a result, the emphasis of this review is placed on recently discovered biomarkers for early diagnosis as well as tyrosine kinase inhibitors as possible therapy options for CRC.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2023 Jiang, Zhou and Li.

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