Successful treatment of lung adenocarcinoma complicated with a rare compound EGFR mutation L833V/H835L using aumolertinib: a case report and literature review
Background: The deletion of exon 19 and the Leu858Arg mutation of exon 21 are the most frequently observed mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene, and patients with these mutations have shown significant benefits from EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, there exists a small subgroup of patients with uncommon/rare mutations of EGFR , including compound mutations, which display a high degree of heterogeneity in terms of clinical features and variable sensitivities to EGFR-TKIs. The understanding of these uncommon mutations and their response to targeted therapy is still unclear and requires further investigation. Case presentation: We presented a case of a never-smoking patient with lung adenocarcinoma and brain metastasis. Initially, she received chemotherapy plus immune checkpoint inhibitor as first-line therapy as no EGFR mutations were detected by amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. However, disease progressed rapidly. Subsequently, next-generation sequencing was carried out and revealed a rare compound mutation, L833V/H835L, in exon 21 of EGFR . As a result, she was switched to second-line therapy with the third-generation TKI aumolertinib, which demonstrated good efficacy. The patient was evaluated for a remarkable progression-free survival of 18 months and an overall survival of 29 months. Conclusion: The present study supports that aumolertinib might be a good treatment option for advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR L833V/H835L mutation, particularly in patients with brain metastasis. Furthermore, conducting a comprehensive screening for gene mutations is crucial in effectively identifying potential oncogenic driver mutations and guiding mutation-targeted therapy decisions in clinical practice.