Pharmacogenomic implications of the differential distribution of CYP2C9 metabolic phenotypes among Latin American populations
The CYP2C9 gene encodes the major drug metabolism enzyme CYP2C9. This gene is highly polymorphic, and no-function ( CYP2C9*3 ) plus decreased function ( CYP2C9*2, *5, *8 and *11 ) star alleles (haplotypes) are commonly used to predict CYP2C9 metabolic phenotypes. This study explores the pharmacogenomic implications of the differential distribution of genotype-predicted CYP2C9 phenotypes across Latin American populations. Data from 1,404 individuals from the South American countries Brazil, Colombia and Peru, from Puerto Rico in the Caribbean and from persons with Mexican ancestry living in North America were analysed. The results showed that the distribution of CYP2C9 alleles and diplotypes, and diplotype-predicted CYP2C9 phenotypes vary significantly across the distinct country cohorts, as well as among self-identified White, Brown and Black Brazilians. Differences in average proportions of biogeographical ancestry across the study groups, especially Native American and African ancestry, are the likely explanation for these results. The differential distribution of genotype-predicted CYP2C9 phenotypes has potentially clinically-relevant pharmacogenomic implications, through its influence on the proportion of individuals at high risk for adverse response to medications that are CYP2C9 substrates, the proportion on individuals with CPIC therapeutic recommendations for dosing and choice of nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the number of individuals that need to be genotyped in order to prevent adverse effects of NSAIDs. Collectively, these findings are likely to impact the perceived benefits, cost-effectiveness and clinical adoption of pharmacogenomic screening for drugs that are predominantly metabolized by CYP2C9.