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Untargeted Phytochemical Profiling, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of a Tunisian Capsicum annuum Cultivar

Affiliation
Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Environment, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax-Tunisia, B.P “1173”, Sfax 3038, Tunisia;(Y.G.);(J.A.)
Grojja, Yossri;
Affiliation
Faculty of Sciences and Technology of SidiBouzid, University of Kairouan, Campus University Agricultural City, Sidi Bouzid 9100, Tunisia;
Hajlaoui, Hafedh;
ORCID
0000-0003-0904-0060
Affiliation
Biothermodynamics, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany;
Luca, Simon Vlad;
Affiliation
Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Environment, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax-Tunisia, B.P “1173”, Sfax 3038, Tunisia;(Y.G.);(J.A.)
Abidi, Jouda;
ORCID
0000-0002-9313-5929
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry of Natural Products, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna;
Affiliation
Laboratory of Medicinal and Environmental Chemistry, High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax 3038, Tunisia;
Zouari, Sami;
ORCID
0000-0001-9107-7027
Affiliation
Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Environment, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax-Tunisia, B.P “1173”, Sfax 3038, Tunisia;(Y.G.);(J.A.)
Bouaziz, Mohamed

Peppers are among the spices possessing a wide plethora of biological properties due to their excellent supply of health-related metabolites. Capsicum annuum L. (Solanaceae) is cultivated throughout Tunisia, and there is a shortage of information on the identification of the secondary metabolites in the seeds of this species as well as on their biological activities. In the present work, we intended to undertake a chemical characterization of the bioactive compounds from the hydro-methanolic seed extract of C. annuum as well as an evaluation of its broad spectrum of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The chemical profile was evaluated by RP-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS, whereas the total phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were determined in in vitro assays. In this work, 45 compounds belonging to various phytochemical classes, such as organic acids (2), phenolic compounds (4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids), capsaicinoids (3), capsianosides (5), fatty acids (13), amino acids (1), sphingolipids (10), and steroids (2) were identified in the hydro-methanolic seed extract of C. annuum . The phenolic and flavonoid content (193.7 mg GAE/g DW and 25.1 mg QE/g DW, respectively) of the C. annuum extract correlated with the high antiradical activity (IC 50 = 45.0 µg/mL), reducing power (EC 50 = 61.3 µg/mL) and chelating power (IC 50 = 79.0 µg/mL) activities. The hydro-methanolic seed extract showed an important antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and four fungal strains. In fact, the inhibition zones (IZs) for bacteria ranged from 9.00 ± 1.00 mm to 12.00 ± 0.00 mm; for fungi, the IZs ranged from 12.66 ± 0.57 mm to 13.66 ± 0.57 mm. The minimal inhibition concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values showed that the extract was more effective against fungi than bacteria.

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