Streptomyces iakyrus TA 36 as First-Reported Source of Quinone Antibiotic γ–Rubromycin
A wide range of bioactive compounds with potential medical applications are produced by members of the genus Streptomyces . A new actinomycete producer of the antibiotic γ-rubromycin, designated TA 36, was isolated from an alpine soil sample collected in Peru (Machu Picchu). Morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the strain, together with data obtained via phylogenetic analysis and MALDI-TOF MS, were used for the correct identification of the isolate. The isolate TA 36 showed morphological characteristics that were consistent with its classification within the genus Streptomyces . Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the TA 36 strain was most similar to S. iakyrus and S. violaceochromogenes with 99% similarity. Phylogenetic analysis together with the profile of whole cell proteins indicated that the strain tested could be identified as S. iakyrus TA 36. The crude extract Ext. 5333 .TA 36 showed various effects against the tested organisms with strong antimicrobial activity in the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (Newman) (MIC value of 0.00195 µg/µL). HPLC fractionation and LC/MS analysis of the crude extract led to the identification of the quinone antibiotic γ-rubromycin, a promising antitumour and antibacterial antibiotic. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no report on the production of γ-rubromycin by S. iakyrus . Therefore, this study suggests S. iakyrus TA 36 as the first-reported source of this unique bioactive secondary metabolite.