Exploring the Influence of Chemical Conditions on Nanoparticle Graphene Oxide Adsorption onto Clay Minerals
High concentrations of graphene oxide (GO), a nanoparticle substance with rapid manufacturing development, have the ability to penetrate the soil surface down to the mineral-rich subsurface layers. The destiny and distribution of such an unusual sort of nanomaterial in the environment must therefore be fully understood. However, the way the chemistry of solutions impacts GO nanoparticle adsorption on clay minerals is still unclear. Here, the adsorption of GO on clay minerals (e.g., bentonite and kaolinite) was tested under various chemical conditions (e.g., GO concentration, soil pH, and cation valence). Non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to describe the adsorption isotherm by comparing the amount of adsorbed GO nanoparticle to the concentration at the equilibrium of the solution. Our results showed fondness for GO in bentonite and kaolinite under similar conditions, but the GO nanoparticle adsorption with bentonite was superior to kaolinite, mainly due to its higher surface area and surface charge. We also found that increasing the ionic strength and decreasing the pH increased the adsorption of GO nanoparticles to bentonite and kaolinite, mainly due to the interaction between these clay minerals and GO nanoparticles’ surface oxygen functional groups. Experimental data fit well to the non-linear pseudo-second-order kinetic model of Freundlich. The model of the Freundlich isotherm was more fitting at a lower pH and higher ionic strength in the bentonite soil while the lowest R 2 value of the Freundlich model was recorded at a higher pH and lower ionic strength in the kaolinite soil. These results improve our understanding of GO behavior in soils by revealing environmental factors influencing GO nanoparticle movement and transmission towards groundwater.