The Spectrum of Molecular Pathways in Gliomas—An Up-to-Date Review
During the last 20 years, molecular alterations have gained increasing significance in the diagnosis and biological assessment of tumors. Gliomas represent the largest group of tumors of the central nervous system, and the main aim of this review is to present the current knowledge on molecular pathways and their alterations in gliomas. A wide range of new insights has been gained, including evidence for the involvement of the WNT pathway or the hippo pathway in the pathobiology of gliomas, indicating a broad involvement of different pathways formerly not considered to play a central role in gliomas. Even new aspects of angiogenic, apoptotic, and metabolic pathways are presented, as well as the rapidly growing field of epigenetic processes, including non-coding RNAs. The two major conclusions drawn from the present review are the distinct interconnectivity of the whole spectrum of molecular pathways and the prominent role of non-coding RNAs, especially circular RNAs, in the regulation of specific targets. All these new insights are discussed, even considering the topic of the resistance to therapy of gliomas, along with aspects that are still incompletely understood, like the role of hydroxymethylation, or even ferroptosis, in the pathobiology of gliomas.