Cross-Talk of NADPH Oxidases and Inflammation in Obesity
Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Multiple experimental and clinical studies have shown increased oxidative stress and inflammation linked to obesity. NADPH oxidases are major sources of reactive oxygen species in the cardiovascular system and in metabolically active cells and organs. An impaired balance due to the increased formation of reactive oxygen species and a reduced antioxidative capacity contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and is linked to inflammation as a major pathomechanism in cardiometabolic diseases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is particularly characterized by increased oxidative stress and inflammation. In recent years, COVID-19 infections have also increased oxidative stress and inflammation in infected cells and tissues. Increasing evidence supports the idea of an increased risk for severe clinical complications of cardiometabolic diseases after COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in experimental models and clinical studies of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, COVID-19 infections and potential therapeutic strategies.