Perivascular Adipose Tissue Oxidative Stress in Obesity
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) adheres to most systemic blood vessels in the body. Healthy PVAT exerts anticontractile effects on blood vessels and further protects against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Healthy PVAT regulates vascular homeostasis via secreting an array of adipokine, hormones, and growth factors. Normally, homeostatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PVAT act as secondary messengers in various signalling pathways and contribute to vascular tone regulation. Excessive ROS are eliminated by the antioxidant defence system in PVAT. Oxidative stress occurs when the production of ROS exceeds the endogenous antioxidant defence, leading to a redox imbalance. Oxidative stress is a pivotal pathophysiological process in cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In obesity, PVAT becomes dysfunctional and exerts detrimental effects on the blood vessels. Therefore, redox balance in PVAT emerges as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarise new findings describing different ROS, the major sources of ROS and antioxidant defence in PVAT, as well as potential pharmacological intervention of PVAT oxidative stress in obesity.