Using available in vitro metabolite identification and time course kinetics for β-chloroprene and its metabolite, (1-chloroethenyl) oxirane, to include reactive oxidative metabolites and glutathione depletion in a PBPK model for β-chloroprene
Introduction: ß-chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene; CP) causes lung tumors after inhalation exposures in rats and mice. Mice develop these tumors at lower exposures than rats. In rats CP exposures cause depletion of lung glutathione (GSH). Methods: PBPK models developed to relate the appearance of mouse lung tumors with rates of CP metabolism to reactive metabolites or total amounts metabolized during exposures have been expanded to include production of reactive metabolites from CP. The extended PBPK model describes both the unstable oxirane metabolite, 2-CEO, and metabolism of the more stable oxirane, 1-CEO, to reactive metabolites via microsomal oxidation to a diepoxide, and linked production of these metabolites to a PK model predicting GSH depletion with increasing CP exposure. Key information required to develop the model were available from literature studies identifying: 1) microsomal metabolites of CP, and 2) in vitro rates of clearance of CP and 1-CEO from active microsomal preparations from mice, rats, hamsters and humans. Results: Model simulation of concentration dependence of disproportionate increases in reactive metabolite concentrations as exposures increases and decreases in tissue GSH are consistent with the dose-dependence of tumor formation. At the middle bioassay concentrations with a lung tumor incidence, the predicted tissue GSH is less than 50% background. These simulations of reduction in GSH are also consistent with the gene expression results showing the most sensitive pathways are Nrf2-regulation of oxidative stress and GSH metabolism. Discussion: The PBPK model is used to correlate predicted tissue exposure to reactive metabolites with toxicity and carcinogenicity of CP.