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Cost-effectiveness analysis of once-daily oral semaglutide versus placebo and subcutaneous glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists added to insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes in China

Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration ,School of Pharmacy ,Fudan University ,Shanghai ,China
Feng, Zhen;
Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration ,School of Pharmacy ,Fudan University ,Shanghai ,China
Tong, Wai Kei;
Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration ,School of Pharmacy ,Fudan University ,Shanghai ,China
Zhang, Xinyue;
Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration ,School of Pharmacy ,Fudan University ,Shanghai ,China
Tang, Zhijia

Introduction: Oral semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) that improves glycated hemoglobin levels and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of once-daily oral semaglutide in comparison to placebo and injectable GLP-1 RAs in Chinese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on basal insulin. Methods: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model (UKPDS OM2.1) was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Baseline characteristics of the simulation cohort were obtained from the PIONEER 8 trial. Utility and safety inputs were derived from a network meta-analysis of 12 trials. Direct medical costs were retrieved from published literature and discounted at an annual rate of 5%. We used a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $36,528.3 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Scenario analysis, and one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed. Results: The effectiveness of oral semaglutide was 10.39 QALYs with a total cost of $30,223.10, while placebo provided 10.13 QALYs at a lower total cost of $20,039.19. Oral semaglutide was not cost-effective at an ICER of $39,853.22 and $88,776.61 per QALY compared to placebo and exenatide at the WTP. However, at an annual price of $1,871.9, it was cost-effective compared with dulaglutide, liraglutide, and lixisenatide. The model was most sensitive to the discount rate and annual cost of oral semaglutide. The price of oral semaglutide needed to be reduced to $1,711.03 per year to be cost-effective compared to placebo and other injectable GLP-1 RAs except for exenatide and semaglutide injection. Conclusion: We found that once-daily oral semaglutide, at a comparable price of semaglutide injection, proves to be a cost-effective add-on therapy to insulin for Chinese patients with T2DM, especially when compared to subcutaneous GLP-1 RAs other than injectable semaglutide and exenatide. However, to achieve cost-effectiveness in comparison to placebo, further cost reduction of oral semaglutide is necessary. The estimated annual cost of $1,711.03 for oral semaglutide demonstrates a more cost-effective option than placebo, highlighting its potential value in the management of T2DM.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2023 Feng, Tong, Zhang and Tang.

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