The protective effects of sesamol and/or the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus , against aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats: Modulation of Wnt/β-catenin/GSK-3β, JAK-2/STAT-3, PPAR-γ, inflammatory, and apoptotic pathways
Introduction: Aluminium (Al) is accumulated in the brain causing neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis, autism and epilepsy. Hence, attenuation of Al-induced neurotoxicity has become a “hot topic“ in looking for an intervention that slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: Our study aims to introduce a new strategy for hampering aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity using a combination of sesamol with the probiotic bacteria; Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and also to test their possible ameliorative effects on AlCl 3 -induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) which are control, AlCl 3 , AlCl 3 + Sesamol, AlCl 3 + L. rhamnosus and AlCl 3 + Sesamol + L. rhamnosus . We surveilled the behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations centrally in the brain and peripherally in liver. Results: This work revealed that the combined therapy of sesamol and L. rhamnosus produced marked reduction in brain amyloid-β, p-tau, GSK-3β, inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers, along with marked elevation in brain free β-catenin and Wnt3a, compared to AlCl 3 -intoxicated rats. Also, the combined therapy exerted pronounced reduction in hepatic expressions of JAK-2/STAT-3, inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB), fibrotic (MMP-2, TIMP-1, α-SMA) and apoptotic markers, (caspase-3), together with marked elevation in hepatic PPAR-γ expression, compared to AlCl 3 -intoxicated rats. Behavioral and histopathological assessments substantiated the efficiency of this combined regimen in halting the effect of neurotoxicity. Discussion: Probiotics can be used as an add-on therapy with sesamol ameliorate AlCl 3 -mediated neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.