Advanced In Vivo Prediction by Introducing Biphasic Dissolution Data into PBPK Models
Coupling biorelevant in vitro dissolution with in silico physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) tools represents a promising method to describe and predict the in vivo performance of drug candidates in formulation development including non-passive transport, prodrug activation, and first-pass metabolism. The objective of the present study was to assess the predictability of human pharmacokinetics by using biphasic dissolution results obtained with the previously established BiPHa+ assay and PBPK tools. For six commercial drug products, formulated by different enabling technologies, the respective organic partitioning profiles were processed with two PBPK in silico modeling tools, namely PK-Sim and GastroPlus ® , similar to extended-release dissolution profiles. Thus, a mechanistic dissolution/precipitation model of the assessed drug products was not required. The developed elimination/distribution models were used to simulate the pharmacokinetics of the evaluated drug products and compared with available human data. In essence, an in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) was successfully developed. Organic partitioning profiles obtained from the BiPHa+ dissolution analysis enabled highly accurate predictions of the pharmacokinetic behavior of the investigated drug products. In addition, PBPK models of (pro-)drugs with pronounced first-pass metabolism enabled adjustment of the solely passive diffusion predicting organic partitioning profiles, and increased prediction accuracy further.