Feedback

Synthesis and Characterization of Dimeric Artesunate Glycerol Monocaprylate Conjugate and Formulation of Nanoemulsion Preconcentrate

ORCID
0000-0003-3230-1695
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, D-06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
Hore, Rana;
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, D-06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
Hasan, Nazmul;
ORCID
0000-0003-1613-6976
Affiliation
Institute of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
Mäder, Karsten;
ORCID
0000-0001-8571-5985
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, D-06099 Halle (Saale), Germany
Kressler, Jörg

Malaria is one of the major life-threatening health problems worldwide. Artesunate is the most potent antimalarial drug to combat severe malaria. However, development of drug resistance, short plasma half-life, and poor bioavailability limit the efficacy of this drug. Here, we applied the dimerization concept to synthesize dimeric artesunate glycerol monocaprylate conjugate (D-AS-GC) by conjugating artesunate (AS) with glycerol monocaprylate (GC) via esterification reaction. D-AS-GC conjugate, AS, and GC were well characterized by 1 H NMR, attached proton test (APT) 13 C NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy. D-AS-GC conjugate was further analyzed by ESI-TOF MS. Finally, a series of nanoemulsion preconcentrate (F1–F6) of D-AS-GC was prepared by mixing different ratios of oil and surfactant/cosurfactant and evaluated after dilution with an aqueous phase. The optimized formulation (F6) exhibits a clear nanoemulsion and the hydrodynamic diameter of the dispersed phase was determined by DLS and DOSY NMR spectroscopy. The morphology of the nanoemulsion droplets of F6 was investigated by AFM, which revealed the formation of tiny nanoemulsion droplets on a hydrophilic mica substrate. Moreover, using a less polar silicon wafer led to the formation of larger droplets with a spherical core shell-like structure. Overall, the rational design of the dimeric artesunate-based nanoemulsion preconcentrate could potentially be used in more efficient drug delivery systems.

Cite

Citation style:
Could not load citation form.

Access Statistic

Total:
Downloads:
Abtractviews:
Last 12 Month:
Downloads:
Abtractviews:

Rights

License Holder: © 2023 by the authors.

Use and reproduction: