Metal-Containing Formate Dehydrogenases, a Personal View
Mo/W-containing formate dehydrogenases (FDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide at their molybdenum or tungsten active sites. The metal-containing FDHs are members of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase family of mononuclear molybdenum cofactor (Moco)- or tungsten cofactor (Wco)-containing enzymes. In these enzymes, the active site in the oxidized state comprises a Mo or W atom present in the bis-Moco, which is coordinated by the two dithiolene groups from the two MGD moieties, a protein-derived SeCys or Cys, and a sixth ligand that is now accepted as being a sulfido group. SeCys-containing enzymes have a generally higher turnover number than Cys-containing enzymes. The analogous chemical properties of W and Mo, the similar active sites of W- and Mo-containing enzymes, and the fact that W can replace Mo in some enzymes have led to the conclusion that Mo- and W-containing FDHs have the same reaction mechanism. Details of the catalytic mechanism of metal-containing formate dehydrogenases are still not completely understood and have been discussed here.