Electrochemical Determination of Epinephrine in Pharmaceutical Preparation Using Laponite Clay-Modified Graphene Inkjet-Printed Electrode
Epinephrine (EP, also called adrenaline) is a compound belonging to the catecholamine neurotransmitter family. It can cause neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This work describes an amperometric sensor for the electroanalytical detection of EP by using an inkjet-printed graphene electrode (IPGE) that has been chemically modified by a thin layer of a laponite (La) clay mineral. The ion exchange properties and permeability of the chemically modified electrode (denoted La/IPGE) were evaluated using multi-sweep cyclic voltammetry, while its charge transfer resistance was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that La/IPGE exhibited higher sensitivity to EP compared to the bare IPGE. The developed sensor was directly applied for the determination of EP in aqueous solution using differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range between 0.8 µM and 10 μM. The anodic peak current of EP was directly proportional to its concentration, leading to detection limits of 0.34 μM and 0.26 μM with bare IPGE and La/IPGE, respectively. The sensor was successfully applied for the determination of EP in pharmaceutical preparations. Recovery rates and the effects of interfering species on the detection of EP were evaluated to highlight the selectivity of the elaborated sensor.