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NAFLD and AATD Are Two Diseases with Unbalanced Lipid Metabolism: Similarities and Differences

ORCID
0000-0002-0024-6727
Affiliation
Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Rare Diseases Research (IIER), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28220 Madrid, Spain;(S.P.-L.);(N.M.);(G.G.-M.)
Perez-Luz, Sara;
Affiliation
Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Rare Diseases Research (IIER), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28220 Madrid, Spain;(S.P.-L.);(N.M.);(G.G.-M.)
Matamala, Nerea;
Affiliation
Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Rare Diseases Research (IIER), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28220 Madrid, Spain;(S.P.-L.);(N.M.);(G.G.-M.)
Gomez-Mariano, Gema;
Affiliation
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover BREATH, Member of the German Center for Lung Research DZL, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany;
Janciauskiene, Sabina;
ORCID
0000-0001-6834-350X
Affiliation
Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Rare Diseases Research (IIER), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28220 Madrid, Spain;(S.P.-L.);(N.M.);(G.G.-M.)
Martínez-Delgado, Beatriz

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a type of steatosis commonly associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Other diseases such as inherited alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) have also been related to the development of liver steatosis. The primary reasons leading to hepatic lipid deposits can be genetic and epigenetic, and the outcomes range from benign steatosis to liver failure, as well as to extrahepatic diseases. Progressive hepatocellular damage and dysregulated systemic immune responses can affect extrahepatic organs, specifically the heart and lungs. In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences between the molecular pathways of NAFLD and AATD, and the putative value of hepatic organoids as novel models to investigate the physio pathological mechanisms of liver steatosis.

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