Non-Neuronal Acetylcholinesterase Activity Shows Limited Utility for Early Detection of Sepsis
(1) Background: Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory condition characterized by rapid clinical deterioration and organ dysfunction. The cholinergic system has been implicated in modulating the inflammatory response. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme primarily responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, has been proposed as a potential early indicator of sepsis onset. However, the exact role of non-neuronal AChE activity in sepsis and its correlation with disease severity and patient outcomes remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of AChE activity in sepsis and evaluate its association with disease severity and clinical outcomes. (2) Methods: A prospective study included 43 septic patients. AChE activity was measured at sepsis detection, as well as 7 and 28 days later. Inflammatory biomarkers, disease severity scores, and patient outcomes were evaluated. (3) Results: AChE activity remained stable for 7 days and decreased at 28 days. However, there was no correlation between initial AChE activity and inflammatory biomarkers, disease severity scores, ICU stay, or hospital stay. (4) Conclusions: Non-neuronal AChE activity may not reliably indicate early sepsis or predict disease severity.