Xanthine–Dopamine Hybrid Molecules as Multitarget Drugs with Potential for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Multitarget drugs based on a hybrid dopamine–xanthine core were designed as potential drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors with significant ancillary A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A AR) antagonistic properties were further developed to exhibit additional phosphodiesterase-4 and -10 (PDE4/10) inhibition and/or dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) agonistic activity. While all of the designed compounds showed MAO-B inhibition in the nanomolar range mostly combined with submicromolar A 2A AR affinity, significant enhancement of PDE-inhibitory and D 2 R-agonistic activity was additionally reached for some compounds through various structural modifications. The final multitarget drugs also showed promising antioxidant properties in vitro. In order to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effect, representative ligands were tested in a cellular model of toxin-induced neurotoxicity. As a result, protective effects against oxidative stress in neuroblastoma cells were observed, confirming the utility of the applied strategy. Further evaluation of the newly developed multitarget ligands in preclinical models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases is warranted.