Evaluation of Disinfectant Efficacy against Biofilm-Residing Wild-Type Salmonella from the Porcine Industry
Salmonella enterica is a causative pathogen of Salmonellosis, a zoonosis causing global disease and financial losses every year. Pigs may be carriers of Salmonella and contribute to the spread to humans and food products. Salmonella may persist as biofilms. Biofilms are bacterial aggregates embedded in a self-produced matrix and are known to withstand disinfectants. We studied the effect of glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid, two active substances frequently used in disinfectant formulations in the pig industry, on representative biofilm-residing wild-type Salmonella collected from pig housings in the United Kingdom (UK). We screened biofilm production of strains using the microtiter plate (MTP) assay and Congo Red Coomassie Blue (CRCB) agar method. Previously published stainless-steel coupon (SSCA), polyvinylchloride coupon (PCA), and glass bead (GBA) assays were used for disinfection studies. The mean reduction in the tested wild-type strains met the criterion of ≥4 log 10 CFU at a disinfectant concentration of 0.05% with SSCA and GBA, and 0.005% with PCA for peracetic acid, along with 0.5% for glutaraldehyde with all three assays on the mean. At these concentrations, both tested disinfectants are suitable for disinfection of pig housings against Salmonella . When evaluating the efficacy of disinfectants, biofilms should be included, as higher disinfectant concentrations are necessary compared to planktonic bacteria.