Exploring the Potential of Bee-Derived Antioxidants for Maintaining Oral Hygiene and Dental Health: A Comprehensive Review
Honey bee products comprise various compounds, including honey, propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen, bee wax and bee venom, which have long been recognized for their pharmacological and health-promoting benefits. Scientists have discovered that periodontal disorders stem from dental biofilm, an inflammatory response to bacterial overgrowth produced by dysbiosis in the oral microbiome. The bee products have been investigated for their role in prevention of oral diseases, which are attributed to a myriad of biologically active compounds including flavonoids (pinocembrin, catechin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and galangin), phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric, ellagic, caffeic and ferulic acids) and terpenoids. This review aims to update the current understanding of role of selected bee products, namely, honey, propolis and royal jelly, in preventing oral diseases as well as their potential biological activities and mechanism of action in relation to oral health have been discussed. Furthermore, the safety of incorporation of bee products is also critically discussed. To summarize, bee products could potentially serve as a therapy option for people suffering from a variety of oral disorders.