Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling for single and multiple dosing regimens of ceftriaxone in healthy and chronic kidney disease populations: a tool for model-informed precision dosing
Introduction: Ceftriaxone is one of commonly prescribed beta-lactam antibiotics with several label and off-label clinical indications. A high fraction of administered dose of ceftriaxone is excreted renally in an unchanged form, and it may accumulate significantly in patients with impaired renal functions, which may lead to toxicity. Methods: In this study, we employed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, as a tool for precision dosing, to predict the biological exposure of ceftriaxone in a virtually-constructed healthy and chronic kidney disease patient populations, with subsequent dosing optimizations. We started developing the model by integrating the physicochemical properties of the drug with biological system information in a PBPK software platform. A PBPK model in an adult healthy population was developed and evaluated visually and numerically with respect to experimental pharmacokinetic data. The model performance was evaluated based on the fold error criteria of the predicted and reported values for different pharmacokinetic parameters. Then, the model was applied to predict drug exposure in CKD patient populations with various degrees of severity. Results: The developed PBPK model was able to precisely describe the pharmacokinetic behavior of ceftriaxone in adult healthy population and in mild, moderate, and severe CKD patient populations. Decreasing the dose by approximately 25% in mild and 50% in moderate to severe renal disease provided a comparable exposure to the healthy population. Based on the simulation of multiple dosing regimens in severe CKD population, it has been found that accumulation of 2 g every 24 h is lower than the accumulation of 1 g every 12 h dosing regimen. Discussion: In this study, the observed concentration time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftriaxone were successfully reproduced by the developed PBPK model and it has been shown that PBPK modeling can be used as a tool for precision dosing to suggest treatment regimens in population with renal impairment.