Using PIM-Taiwan, PRISCUS, and Beers criteria to assess potentially inappropriate medication use among older adults with 90-day rehospitalization: a population-based study in Taiwan
Background: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy increase the risk of hospitalization in older adults receiving potentially inappropriate medication (PIM). The current study compared the ability of PIM-Taiwan, PRISCUS, and Beers criteria to predict 90-day rehospitalization in older patients with and without PIM. Methods: The retrospective cohort study used Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database to retrieve quarterly information about prescribed medication for adults aged ≥65 years hospitalized between 2001 and 2018. We analyzed the association of PIM with 90-day rehospitalization using logistic regression. Results: The study cohort included 206,058 older adults (mean age: 72.5 years). In the analysis, 133,201 (64.6%), 97,790 (47.5%), and 147,450 (71.6%), were identified as having PIM exposure in PIM-Taiwan, PRICUS, and Beers criteria, respectively. PIM-Taiwan criteria found exposure to PIM affecting the cardiovascular (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32–1.41), gastrointestinal (aOR 1.26, 95% CI = 1.23–1.30), central nervous (aOR 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08–1.14), and respiratory (aOR 1.16, 95% CI = 1.12–1.20) systems significantly increased the risk of 90-day rehospitalization, after adjustment for covariates. In PRISCUS criteria, exposure to PIM affecting the respiratory (aOR 1.48, 95% CI = 1.41–1.56), central nervous (aOR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.09–1.15), and cardiovascular (aOR 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16–1.24) systems significantly increased the risk. In Beers criteria, exposure to PIM affecting the cardiovascular (aOR 1.37, 95% CI = 1.32–1.41), gastrointestinal (aOR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.35–1.42), central nervous (aOR 1.18, 95% CI = 1.15–1.21), endocrine (aOR 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06–1.15), and respiratory (aOR 1.09, 95% CI = 1.04–1.13) systems significantly increased the risk. Patients with 90-day rehospitalization had higher rates of the potentially harmful drug-drug interaction (DDI) pairs of serotonin syndrome (n = 19; 48.8%), QT prolongation (n = 4; 30.8%), extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) (n = 102; 24.5%), and hypokalemia (n = 275; 20.1%). Conclusion: Beers criteria was more efficient in predicting 90-day rehospitalization among older adults experiencing PIM in Taiwan than either PIM-Taiwan or PRISCUS. The risk of 90-day rehospitalization was associated with the potentially harmful DDI classes of serotonin syndrome, QT prolongation, EPS, and hypokalemia.