Advances in natural compound-based nanomedicine and the interaction with gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis therapy
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder of the large intestine. Previous studies have indicated that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the triggers, development, and treatment response of UC. Natural active molecules and their nanoformulations show huge potential for treating UC. The nanoparticles can regulate the gut microbiota and metabolites, whereas gut microbiota-mediated effects on nanomedicines can also bring additional therapeutic benefits. Therefore, this review aims to integrate current research on natural active molecule-based nanomedicines for UC therapy and their interaction with the gut microbiota. Here, this discussion focuses on the effects and functions of gut microbiota and metabolites in UC. The use of active molecules and the nanoformulation from natural compounds for UC therapy have been provided. The interactions between the gut microbiota and nanomedicines are derived from natural products and elucidate the possible biological mechanisms involved. Finally, the challenges and future directions for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of nanomedicine in treating UC are proposed.