Anaphylactoid reactions induced by Shuanghuanglian injection and Shenmai injection and metabolomics analysis
Introduction: Shuanghuanglian injection (lyophilized) (SHLI) is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infection. Shenmai injection (SMI) is mainly used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Despite their widespread clinical use, anaphylactoid reactions (ARs) induced by SHLI and SMI have been reported, which have attracted broad attention. However, the impact of ARs on metabolic changes and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Methods: ICR mice were used as model animals and were treated with normal saline, C48/80, SHLI and SMI, respectively. The behavior of mice, auricle blue staining and Evans Blue exudation were used as indexes to evaluate the sensitization of SHLI and SMI and determine the optimal sensitization dose. Anaphylactoid mice model was established based on the optimal dose and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to model verification. Afterwards, plasma samples of administered mice were profiled by LC-MS metabolomics and analyzed to evaluate the changes in metabolites. Results: High doses of both SHLI and SMI can induce severe anaphylactoid reactions while the reaction induced by SMI was weaker. A Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plot indicated that following administration, significant metabolic changes occurred in mice. 23 distinct metabolites, including deoxycholic acid, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan, were identified in the SHLI groups. 11 distinct metabolites, including androsterone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetate, were identified in the SMI groups. Meanwhile, different metabolic pathways of SHLI and SMI were predicted by different metabolites. The associated metabolic pathways include steroid hormone biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, histidine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and primary bile acid biosynthesis. Conclusion: Study showed that both SHLI and SMI can induce varying degrees of anaphylactoid reactions, a positive correlation between response intensity and dose was observed. Metabolomics showed that SHLI and SMI may promote the simultaneous release of hormones and inflammatory factors by disturbing relevant metabolic pathways, while SMI may also inhibit the release of inflammatory factors in arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, indicating both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. This study will serve as a reference for developing a new approach to evaluate the safety of SHLI and SMI from perspective of susceptible drug varieties. However, ARs mechanism requires further verification.