Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant traditional Chinese Medicine in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis
A metabolic bone disorder called osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and compromised microarchitecture. This condition can deteriorate bones and raise the risk of fractures. The two main causes of osteoporosis are an increase in osteoclast activity or quantity and a decrease in osteoblast viability. Numerous mechanisms, including estrogen shortage, aging, chemical agents, and decreased mechanical loads, have been linked to osteoporosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress have recently been linked to osteoporosis, according to an increasing number of studies. The two primary medications used to treat osteoporosis at the moment are bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). These medications work well for osteoporosis brought on by aging and estrogen deprivation, however, they do not target inflammation and oxidative stress-induced osteoporosis. In addition, these drugs have some limitations that are attributed to various side effects that have not been overcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied in osteoporosis for many years and has a high safety profile. Therefore, in this review, literature related to botanical drugs that have an effect on inflammation and oxidative stress-induced osteoporosis was searched for. Moreover, the pharmacologically active ingredients of these herbs and the pathways were discussed and may contribute to the discovery of more safe and effective drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis.