Population pharmacokinetic analysis of transdermal granisetron in healthy Chinese and Caucasian volunteers
Granisetron patches are a prolonged delivery transdermal system that is used to prevent Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). To date, no pharmacokinetics comparison between Chinese and Caucasian populations has been conducted for granisetron patches. This study focused on the ethnic differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) of granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) between Chinese and Caucasians and the influence of demographic covariates on pharmacokinetics (age, weight, height, body mass index, sex). To achieve this, blood concentration data were collected from 112 Caucasian healthy subjects participating in four clinical trials and 24 Chinese healthy subjects from one clinical trial, after a single application of the granisetron transdermal delivery system. A nonlinear mixed-effects model method of Phoenix NLME software was used to establish a population pharmacokinetic (Pop PK) model for Caucasian subjects. Bootstrap and visual predictive check (VPC) were used to validate the model. Based on the analysis a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and a first-order elimination well described the PK characteristics of GTDS. The apparent systemic clearance was determined to be 31316.3 mL/h and the central compartment volume of distribution was 6299.03 L. None of the five covariates (age, weight, height, body mass index, and sex) included in the Pop PK were significant covariates affecting PK. The final Pop PK model was used to simulate the Caucasian blood concentration by applying the dosing regimen used for the Chinese population. Comparison of the simulated Caucasian PK data with observed clinical PK data from Chinese healthy subjects revealed no significant differences in the main parameters, AUC last and C avg , between the two groups. These findings suggested that no dose adjustment was required when applied to the Chinese population. In conclusion, this Pop PK study comparing the transdermal patch in Chinese and Caucasian healthy subjects provided valuable insights for optimizing dosage across ethnicities.