Artefact Profiling: Panomics Approaches for Understanding the Materiality of Written Artefacts
This review explains the strategies behind genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metallomics and isotopolomics approaches and their applicability to written artefacts. The respective sub-chapters give an insight into the analytical procedure and the conclusions drawn from such analyses. A distinction is made between information that can be obtained from the materials used in the respective manuscript and meta-information that cannot be obtained from the manuscript itself, but from residues of organisms such as bacteria or the authors and readers. In addition, various sampling techniques are discussed in particular, which pose a special challenge in manuscripts. The focus is on high-resolution, non-targeted strategies that can be used to extract the maximum amount of information about ancient objects. The combination of the various omics disciplines (panomics) especially offers potential added value in terms of the best possible interpretations of the data received. The information obtained can be used to understand the production of ancient artefacts, to gain impressions of former living conditions, to prove their authenticity, to assess whether there is a toxic hazard in handling the manuscripts, and to be able to determine appropriate measures for their conservation and restoration.