An Updated Review on Monkeypox Viral Disease: Emphasis on Genomic Diversity
Monkeypox virus has remained the most virulent poxvirus since the elimination of smallpox approximately 41 years ago, with distribution mostly in Central and West Africa. Monkeypox (Mpox) in humans is a zoonotically transferred disease that results in a smallpox-like disease. It was first diagnosed in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the disease has spread over West and Central Africa. The purpose of this review was to give an up-to-date, thorough, and timely overview on the genomic diversity and evolution of a re-emerging infectious disease. The genetic profile of Mpox may also be helpful in targeting new therapeutic options based on genes, mutations, and phylogeny. Mpox has become a major threat to global health security, necessitating a quick response by virologists, veterinarians, public health professionals, doctors, and researchers to create high-efficiency diagnostic tests, vaccinations, antivirals, and other infection control techniques. The emergence of epidemics outside of Africa emphasizes the disease’s global significance. Increased monitoring and identification of Mpox cases are critical tools for obtaining a better knowledge of the ever-changing epidemiology of this disease.