Caffeine Inhibits Oxidative Stress- and Low Dose Endotoxemia-Induced Senescence—Role of Thioredoxin-1
The maintenance of Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) levels, and thus of cellular redox homeostasis, is vital for endothelial cells (ECs) to prevent senescence induction. One hallmark of EC functionality, their migratory capacity, which depends on intact mitochondria, is reduced in senescence. Caffeine improves the migratory capacity and mitochondrial functionality of ECs. However, the impact of caffeine on EC senescence has never been investigated. Moreover, a high-fat diet, which can induce EC senescence, results in approximately 1 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood. Therefore, we investigated if low dose endotoxemia induces EC senescence and concomitantly reduces Trx-1 levels, and if caffeine prevents or even reverses senescence. We show that caffeine precludes H 2 O 2 -triggered senescence induction by maintaining endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) levels and preventing the elevation of p21. Notably, 1 ng/mL LPS also increases p21 levels and reduces eNOS and Trx-1 amounts. These effects are completely blocked by co-treatment with caffeine. This prevention of senescence induction is similarly accomplished by the permanent expression of mitochondrial p27, a downstream effector of caffeine. Most importantly, after senescence induction by LPS, a single bolus of caffeine inhibits the increase in p21. This treatment also blocks Trx-1 degradation, suggesting that the reversion of senescence is intimately associated with a normalized redox balance.