FeTPPS, a Peroxynitrite Decomposition Catalyst, Ameliorates Nitrosative Stress in Human Spermatozoa
Excessive levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as peroxynitrite, promote nitrosative stress, which is an important cause of impaired sperm function. The metalloporphyrin FeTPPS is highly effective in catalyzing the decomposition of peroxynitrite, reducing its toxic effects in vivo and in vitro. FeTPPS has significant therapeutic potential in peroxynitrite-related diseases; however, its effects on human spermatozoa under nitrosative stress have not been described. This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of FeTPPS against peroxynitrite-mediated nitrosative stress in human spermatozoa. For this purpose, spermatozoa from normozoospermic donors were exposed to 3-morpholinosydnonimine, a molecule that generates peroxynitrite. First, the FeTPPS-mediated peroxynitrite decomposition catalysis was analyzed. Then, its individual effect on sperm quality parameters was evaluated. Finally, the effect of FeTPPS on ATP levels, motility, mitochondrial membrane potential, thiol oxidation, viability, and DNA fragmentation was analyzed in spermatozoa under nitrosative stress conditions. The results showed that FeTPPS effectively catalyzes the decomposition of peroxynitrite without affecting sperm viability at concentrations up to 50 μmol/L. Furthermore, FeTPPS mitigates the deleterious effects of nitrosative stress on all sperm parameters analyzed. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of FeTPPS in reducing the negative impact of nitrosative stress in semen samples with high RNS levels.