Bayesian model-guided antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics
Antimicrobials have transformed the practice of medicine, making life-threatening infections treatable, but determining optimal dosing, particularly in pediatric patients, remains a challenge. The lack of pediatric data can largely be traced back to pharmaceutical companies, which, until recently, were not required to perform clinical testing in pediatrics. As a result, most antimicrobial use in pediatrics is off-label. In recent years, a concerted effort (e.g., Pediatric Research Equality Act) has been made to fill these knowledge gaps, but progress is slow and better strategies are needed. Model-based techniques have been used by pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies for decades to derive rational individualized dosing guidelines. Historically, these techniques have been unavailable in a clinical setting, but the advent of Bayesian-model-driven, integrated clinical decision support platforms has made model-informed precision dosing more accessible. Unfortunately, the rollout of these systems remains slow despite their increasingly well documented contributions to patient-centered care. The primary goals of this work are to 1) provide a succinct, easy-to-follow description of the challenges associated with designing and implementing dose-optimization strategies; and 2) provide supporting evidence that Bayesian-model informed precision dosing can meet those challenges. There are numerous stakeholders in a hospital setting, and our intention is for this work to serve as a starting point for clinicians who recognize that these techniques are the future of modern pharmacotherapy and wish to become champions of that movement.