Comparison of pharmacogenomic information for drug approvals provided by the national regulatory agencies in Korea, Europe, Japan, and the United States
Pharmacogenomics, which is defined as the study of changes in the properties of DNA and RNA associated with drug response, enables the prediction of the efficacy and adverse effects of drugs based on patients’ specific genetic mutations. For the safe and effective use of drugs, it is important that pharmacogenomic information is easily accessible to clinical experts and patients. Therefore, we examined the pharmacogenomic information provided on drug labels in Korea, Europe, Japan, and the United States (US). The selection of drugs that include pharmacogenomic information was based on the drug list that includes genetic information from the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites. Drug labels were retrieved from the sites of MFDS, FDA, European Medicines Agency, and Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Drugs were classified as per the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code, and the biomarkers, labeling sections, and necessity of genetic tests were determined. In total, 348 drugs were selected from 380 drugs with available pharmacogenomic information in Korea and the US after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these drugs, 137, 324, 169, and 126 were with pharmacogenomics information in Korea, the US, Europe, and Japan, respectively. The most commonly represented drug class was antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents. Regarding the classification as per the mentioned biomarkers, the cytochrome P450 enzyme was the most frequently mentioned information, and the targeted anticancer drugs most commonly required genetic biomarker testing. The reasons for differences in drug labeling information based on country include differences in mutant alleles according to ethnicity, frequencies at which drug lists are updated, and pharmacogenomics-related guidelines. Clinical experts must continuously strive to identify and report mutations that can explain drug efficacy or side effects for safe drug use.