Risk-factor analysis and predictive-model development of acute kidney injury in inpatients administered cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium and mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium: a single-center retrospective study
Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common adverse reaction observed with the clinical use of cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium and mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium. Based upon real-world data, we will herein determine the risk factors associated with AKI in inpatients after receipt of these antimicrobial drugs, and we will develop predictive models to assess the risk of AKI. Methods: Data from all adult inpatients who used cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium and mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium at the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between January 2018 and December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The data were collected through the inpatient electronic medical record (EMR) system and included general information, clinical diagnosis, and underlying diseases, and logistic regression was exploited to develop predictive models for the risk of AKI. The training of the model strictly adopted 10-fold cross-validation to validate its accuracy, and model performance was evaluated employing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the areas under the curve (AUCs). Results: This retrospective study comprised a total of 8767 patients using cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium, of whom 1116 developed AKI after using the drug, for an incidence of 12.73%. A total of 2887 individuals used mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium, of whom 265 developed AKI after receiving the drug, for an incidence of 9.18%. In the cohort administered cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium, 20 predictive factors ( p < 0.05) were applied in constructing our logistic predictive model, and the AUC of the predictive model was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.82–0.84). In the cohort comprising mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium use, nine predictive factors were determined by multivariate analysis ( p < 0.05), and the AUC of the predictive model was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.71–0.77). Conclusion: The incidence of AKI induced by cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium and mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium in hospitalized patients may be related to the combined treatment of multiple nephrotoxic drugs and a past history of chronic kidney disease. The AKI-predictive model based on logistic regression showed favorable performance in predicting the AKI of adult in patients who received cefoperazone-sulbactam sodium or mezlocillin-sulbactam sodium.