An Innovative Tool for Evidence-Based, Personalized Treatment Trials in Mucopolysaccharidosis
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a group of rare metabolic diseases associated with reduced life expectancy and a substantial unmet medical need. Immunomodulatory drugs could be a relevant treatment approach for MPS patients, although they are not licensed for this population. Therefore, we aim to provide evidence justifying fast access to innovative individual treatment trials (ITTs) with immunomodulators and a high-quality evaluation of drug effects by implementing a risk–benefit model for MPS. The iterative methodology of our developed decision analysis framework (DAF) consists of the following steps: (i) a comprehensive literature analysis on promising treatment targets and immunomodulators for MPS; (ii) a quantitative risk–benefit assessment (RBA) of selected molecules; and (iii) allocation phenotypic profiles and a quantitative assessment. These steps allow for the personalized use of the model and are in accordance with expert and patient representatives. The following four promising immunomodulators were identified: adalimumab, abatacept, anakinra, and cladribine. An improvement in mobility is most likely with adalimumab, while anakinra might be the treatment of choice for patients with neurocognitive involvement. Nevertheless, a RBA should always be completed on an individual basis. Our evidence-based DAF model for ITTs directly addresses the substantial unmet medical need in MPS and characterizes a first approach toward precision medicine with immunomodulatory drugs.